Ultimate Guide on How To Calculate Peak Voltage

Electricity · Solar · Watts ·
Ultimate Guide on How To Calculate Peak Voltage
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Here's the quickest to understand how to calculate peak voltage of an alternating current from the RMS (Root Mean Square):

Vpeak = VRMS x √2

In the above formula:

  • Vpeak is the peak voltage
  • VRMS is the RMS voltage

For instance, if you have an electronic device, like a lamp or microwave oven, which operates at a voltage of 120 volts RMS, then by applying the above-mentioned formula:

Vpeak = 120V x √2 = 120V x 1.414 = 169.68V

As depicted in the above example, learning how to calculate the peak voltage is important to understanding the maximum potential of any electrical system, particularly in alternating current circuits. Understanding the peak voltage helps ensure the proper functioning of devices, as some often have voltage requirements that must not be exceeded.

If you are looking for a portable power station that provides stable power to your sensitive electronics, even during power outages or off-grid living, consider Jackery Portable Power Stations. These high-capacity portable power stations can charge 99% of your appliances without worrying about fluctuating voltage.

What Is Peak Voltage?

For any electronic device, a peak voltage refers to the maximum voltage that can be reached in a waveform. It represents the highest voltage level that electronics can attain during one cycle of the waveform. In a sinusoidal waveform, the peak voltage is the waveform's amplitude, which indicates the highest positive or negative voltage that can be attained.

By understanding the peak voltage and its relative terms, one can ensure that electronic devices or electrical components can handle the maximum voltage they may encounter. With the proper understanding of the peak voltage, one can even prevent electronic devices from getting damaged due to voltage fluctuation.

There are several important terms related to peak voltage. For instance:

Peak-to-Peak Voltage

A peak-to-peak voltage is the difference between the maximum positive and negative peak voltage in any sinusoidal waveform. Mathematically, it represents the total voltage swing from the highest positive voltage to the lowest negative voltage within one waveform cycle.

Peak-to-Zero Voltage

As the same suggests, a peak-to-zero voltage is the difference between the peak and zero voltage levels in the sinusoidal waveform. When understanding the importance of peak voltage, a peak-to-zero voltage depicts the magnitude of the voltage from the highest peak to the zero voltage reference point.

Peak Voltage vs. RMS Voltage

As stated, a peak voltage is the maximum voltage achieved in a waveform. However, an RMS (Root Mean Square) voltage is the equivalent steady DC voltage that produces the same amount of power in a resistive load. The RMS voltage value is generally about 0.707 times the peak voltage for a sinusoidal waveform.

peak voltage calculation

How to Calculate Peak Voltage?

In electrical engineering, it is important to understand how to calculate peak voltage. Understanding this fundamental process helps design circuits and ensures all electronic devices function properly.

To effectively calculate the peak voltage for an AC power source, let us consider that there is an AC power outlet with an RMS voltage of 120 volts and there is an LED lamp that requires a peak voltage for proper illumination.

One can calculate the peak voltage by checking the following steps:

Step 1: Identify the RMS Voltage

The first step is to measure the RMS voltage value of the sinusoidal waveform. This value would represent the effective DC voltage producing the same amount of power in a resistive load.

As mentioned, the RMS voltage in this scenario is 120 volts.

Step 2: Apply the RMS Formula

Once the RMS voltage value is obtained, one can use the RMS formula to calculate the peak voltage:

Vpeak = VRMS x √2

Step 3: Substitute Values

Substitute the given values of the RMS voltage into the formula to proceed further:

Vpeak = VRMS x √2 = 120 x √2

Step 4: Calculate

Based on the equation, perform the arithmetic operation:

Vpeak = VRMS x √2 = 120 x √2

Vpeak = 120 x 1.414 = 169.68 volts

how to calculate peak voltage with example

Peak-to-Peak Voltage Formula

If it is required, you can even calculate the peak-to-peak voltage using the following formula:

Vpp= 2 x Vpeak

Vpp = 2 x 169.68

Vpp = 339.36 volts

peak to peak voltage formula

What Is Battery Voltage? Why Does It Matter?

For any battery-powered electronic device, battery voltage refers to the electrical potential difference between a battery's positive and negative terminals. Battery voltage represents the amount of electrical pressure available to drive current through an electrical circuit.

A battery voltage plays an important parameter when it comes to understanding the power related to electronic devices and their related components. A battery voltage also matters for different reasons, like:

Understanding Compatibility

Different electronic devices and systems require specific voltage levels to operate efficiently. For instance, a high-end gaming laptop requires around 20 volts. Whereas, a power drill may need a higher voltage, like 120 volts or more. Once the voltage battery of a battery is matched to the voltage requirement, one can prevent any damage and ensure that the device is running smoothly.

Performance Analysis

The voltage supplied by a battery has a direct impact on the performance of electronic devices. For instance, if the battery voltage of a power unit that one might use during home emergencies or camping is too low, then the devices that require more voltage may not receive sufficient power from it to operate as needed.

Reliable Operation

It is recommended that the battery output be stable in order to ensure reliable operation. Sudden fluctuations or drops in voltage may lead to slower operations. If you plug in sensitive electronics, like laptops or smartwatches, there is a chance of complete device failure.

Mitigating Risks

Just like a low voltage supply cannot power up the devices, an excessive one can even pose risks, like overheating, fire, or even explosion. That is why proper voltage management from the battery is crucial for the safety of electronic devices or battery-powered systems.

Different Battery Voltages

Understanding the voltage characteristics of different battery types is another important factor that helps select the appropriate power source for any operation. There are several typical voltages of various battery types, like:

Lead-Acid Battery

Lead-acid batteries are widely used in automotive and industrial settings because of their high current output.

Nominal Voltage: 2 volts per cell

Common Configurations:

  • 6-volt battery (3 cells in series): 6 volts
  • 12-volt battery (6 cells in series): 12 volts
  • 24-volt battery (12 cells in series): 24 volts

Lithium-ion Battery

Lithium-ion batteries are used to power portable electronics and electric vehicles. They offer high energy density and a longer lifespan than other battery types.

Nominal Voltage: Typically 3.6 to 3.7 volts per cell

Common Configurations:

  • Single-cell battery: 3.6-3.7 volts
  • 2-cell battery (in series): 7.2-7.4 volts
  • 3-cell battery (in series): 10.8-11.1 volts
  • 4-cell battery (in series): 14.4-14.8 volts

Absorbent Glass Mat (AGB) Battery

An AGB battery is maintenance-free and spill-proof, ideal for remote power applications. It is also resistant to shock and vibrations, making it suitable for harsh environmental conditions.

Nominal Voltage: 2 volts per cell

Common Configurations:

  • 6-volt AGM battery: 6 volts
  • 12-volt AGM battery: 12 volts
  • 24-volt AGM battery: 24 volts

Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd) Battery

Nickel-cadmium batteries are known for their robustness and ability to withstand deep charges. NiCd batteries are often used in power tools and backup power systems.

Nominal Voltage: Typically 1.2 volts per cell

Common Configurations:

  • Single-cell battery: 1.2 volts
  • 2-cell battery (in series): 2.4 volts
  • 3-cell battery (in series): 3.6 volts
  • 4-cell battery (in series): 4.8 volts

Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) Battery

A Nickel-Metal Hydride battery provides higher energy density and reduced memory effect compared to NiCd batteries. These batteries are more common in consumer electronics, like digital cameras or drones.

Nominal Voltage: Typically 1.2 volts per cell (similar to NiCd)

Common Configurations:

  • Single-cell battery: 1.2 volts
  • 2-cell battery (in series): 2.4 volts
  • 3-cell battery (in series): 3.6 volts
  • 4-cell battery (in series): 4.8 volts

What Is the Peak Charging Voltage for the Battery?

The peak charging voltage of a battery is the maximum voltage applied to the battery when it's operational. It represents the highest level of electrical potential difference between the battery's positive and negative terminals.

The voltage on a battery measures the electrical potential difference between the two terminals. Technically, the voltage level is important for optimal charging performance, which ensures the battery's lifespan. Furthermore, the voltage on a battery also denotes the electrical force available to drive current through it.

There are several benefits of peak voltage for a battery, like:

Charging Efficiency

By controlling the peak charging voltage, one can ensure that the battery receives the appropriate level of electrical energy necessary to facilitate the charging process. If there is no control over the peak charging and the battery receives power beyond the peak voltage, it can lead to excessive heat generation, reducing the battery.

Battery Longevity

When charging the battery, one should always ensure that it does not exceed the peak level. Excessive peak charging voltage can damage the battery's internal chemistry, reducing capacity. You can prolong the battery's operational lifespan if you follow the peak voltage levels.


Maintaining the peak charging voltage within safe limits is essential for preventing thermal runaway. Not following the peak charging voltage can lead to several risk factors, like swelling, leakage, and overheating. One can mitigate the risk by ensuring proper voltage regulation during charging.

Peak Charging Voltage of Lithium-ion Battery

Lithium-ion batteries use a constant current, constant voltage (CC-CV) charging method. During the initial charging phase, a constant current is applied until the battery reaches a voltage threshold, which is typically around 4.2 volts per cell.

After achieving the voltage threshold, the charges automatically switch to constant voltage mode. During this phase, the voltage is held steady at the peak charging voltage while the current gradually decreases. By adhering to this process, one can ensure that the peak charging voltage is achieved and the battery is fully charged without overcharging.

peak charging voltage of lithium ion battery

Discharge Capacity

A discharge capacity refers to the total amount of electrical energy a battery can deliver when discharging. A discharging capacity is usually measured in ampere-hours (Ah) or milliampere-hours (mAh). For instance, if there is a portable power bank of 20000mAh, it can deliver a current of 2A for one hour and 1A for two hours before it reaches its fully discharged state.

Charge Cell

Capacity at Cut-Off Voltage

Charge Time

Charge With Full Saturation



120 min




135 min




150 min




165 min




180 min


Jackery Portable Power Stations use intelligent BMS (Battery Management System) and state-of-the-art temperature sensors to provide maximum security when charging the appliances. The fully upgraded BMS provides 12 layers of protection against under and overvoltage, short circuits, and temperature extremes. Hence, you can safely power your electrical appliances using Jackery Portable Power Stations without worrying about temperature or voltage fluctuations.

Jackery Portable Power Stations Explained

Jackery is an international award-winning manufacturer of solar generators, solar panels, and portable power stations. The company was launched in 2012 and has sold more than 4 million units since then. Due to its constant efforts in the field of solar power, Jackery has also been featured by notable media houses.

A Jackery Portable Power Station is a portable unit ideal for those looking for an eco-friendly power backup solution for their homes and outdoor adventures. These power stations feature a built-in pure sine wave inverter that converts the harnessed solar energy from Jackery SolarSaga Solar Panels into AC electricity to charge 99% of household appliances.

With a whisper-quiet mode that emits less than 30dB of noise during operation and a built-in battery management system, a Jackery Portable Power Station is ideal for charging sensitive appliances.

Jackery Explorer 3000 Pro Portable Power Station

The Jackery Explorer 3000 Pro Portable Power Station comes with a high battery capacity, which makes it ideal to charge 99% of your household and outdoor appliances. This power station features a suitcase design that makes it easier to carry around the house, put it in your RVs, or even carry it around during the long camping.

The Jackery Explorer 3000 Pro Portable Power Station has a battery capacity of 3024Wh and is operated at 43.2 volts.

Appliances Working Hours

  • Electric Stove (2000W): 1.2H
  • Air Fryer (1500W): 1.7H
  • Coffee Maker (1400W): 1.8H
  • Food Blender (400W): 6.4H
  • Paper Shredder (220W): 11.6H

jackery explorer 3000 pro portable power station how to calculate peak voltage

Customer Review:

"We got the 3000 Pro with 4 200-watt panels. Since then, I've tried out my washing machine, gas dryer, my electric lawn mower, and charged my phone…This unit delivers real power." -- P.V.

Jackery Explorer 2000 Pro Portable Power Station

If you are someone who prefers to go on long family trips or are planning to live off-grid for an extended period, then the Jackery Explorer 2000 Pro Portable Power Station has your back. The portable unit is famous for its compact and lightweight design. With an industry-leading battery management system that ensures short circuit and peak voltage control, you can easily use this portable power station to charge your household and outdoor appliances.

The Jackery Explorer 2000 Pro Portable Power Station has a battery capacity of 2160Wh and is operated at 43.2 volts.

Appliances Working Hours

  • Air Fryer (1500W): 1.2H
  • Coffee Maker (1400W): 1.3H
  • Food Blender (400W): 4.5H
  • Paper Shredder (220W): 8.3H
  • Portable Refrigerator (100W): 18.3H

Customer Review:

"The Explorer 2000 was a piece of cake to set up and has been running as expected, with no glitches whatsoever, for almost 2 weeks, 24/7. My computer gear is happy, I'm happy, all is good." -- John Turner.

Jackery Explorer 2000 Plus Portable Power Station

Suppose you live in an area that faces frequent extended blackouts and are looking for eco-friendly power solutions to charge your appliances. Then, you can go ahead with a Jackery Explorer 2000 Plus Portable Power Station. What distinguishes this portable power unit from the others is how easy it is to operate and how easy it is to connect additional battery packs to expand its battery capacity.

The Jackery Explorer 2000 Plus Portable Power Station has a battery capacity of 2042.8Wh and is operated at 44.8 volts.

Appliances Working Hours

  • Air Fryer (1500W): 1.1H
  • Coffee Maker (1400W): 1.2H
  • Food Blender (400W): 4.3H
  • Paper Shredder (220W): 7.8H
  • Portable Cooler (200W): 8.6H

jackery explorer 2000 plus portable power station how to calculate peak voltage

Customer Review:

"I bought this specifically so I could plug in my freezer during a multi-day power outage. It appears to have enough power to run the freezer for two days, and the freezer will hold for another two days. Which means I should survive the too frequent multi-day power outages for a few years." -- Anita Dyer.

What Is Optimal Charging For Battery?

Optimal battery charging involves maintaining the charging voltage within a specific range. For instance, a 12V lead-acid battery's optimal charging voltage typically lies between 13.6 volts and 14.8 volts.

If one starts charging a 12V battery below 13.6 volts, it will result in undercharging, and the battery will not reach its full capacity. At the same time, if one charges the same battery above 14.8 volts, there is a risk of overcharging, which results in damaging its internal parts. So, any voltage above 14.8 is considered too high for optimal charging.




Battery Over-Voltage



Battery Voltage ≥ 14.8V


Battery Voltage ≤ 13.8V/
Discharge Current ≥ 1A

Battery Cell-Voltage



Battery Cell Voltage ≥ 3.7V


Battery Cell Voltages ≤ 3.45V/
Discharge Current ≥ 1A

Battery Under-Voltage



Battery Voltage ≤ 12V


Battery Voltage ≥ 12.4V/
Charge Current ≥ 1A



Battery Voltage ≤ 10V


Battery Voltage ≥ 12.4V/
Charge Current ≥ 1A

State of Charge

A battery's State of Charge, or SoC, refers to the level of charge stored in a battery relative to its maximum capacity. An SoC of 0% refers to a fully discharged battery, and 100% represents a fully charged one. It is always crucial to determine a battery's remaining capacity and calculate how much runtime it can provide before it needs another round of recharging.

Similarly to SoC, optimal charging of a battery involves how one can carefully manage the charging process to maximize performance and safety. There are several key factors that one needs to consider when they are looking for optimal charging of the battery:

Voltage Regulation: Always use a portable power station or a charger with a voltage regulator that ensures that the charging voltage remains within the recommended range.

Current Limiting: Always opt for charging at a moderate rate to help maintain the battery's health and allow it to absorb the charging energy properly.

Charging Profile: Check the manufacturer's guidelines and follow the recommended charging voltages and current levels for different charging stages.

How To Maintain a Battery Life?

If you have just bought a new battery for your electronic device, then learning how to maintain its life is important to ensure its optimal performance. Here are some generic tips that you can follow that help you preserve the life of your batteries:

Avoid Deep Discharge

The number one reason behind reducing a battery's lifespan is to discharge it completely. If you plan to use a battery for a long time, avoid deep discharging and periodically charge it so it does not reach a 0% level.

Regular Use

If your battery has been dormant for a long time and reached a 0% level, it can also lead to overall capacity loss. If you do not use the batteries for a while, consider periodic maintenance chagrin to keep them in good condition.

Use the Right Charger

It is highly recommended that batteries be charged using compatible chargers. Avoid using third-party chargers or fast chargers, which may lead to overcharging.

How to Calculate Peak Voltage FAQs

How do you measure peak voltage?

A peak voltage is measured using an oscilloscope, which displays the voltage waveform over time. In the oscilloscope, one can analyze the peak voltage, corresponding to the maximum positive or negative excursion of the waveform from zero volts.

What is the formula for peak-to-peak voltage?

The formula for calculating peak-to-peak voltage is:

Vpp = VMax - VMin

In the above formula, VMax is the maximum voltage value, and VMin is the minimum voltage value in the given waveform.

How do you measure peak voltage with a multimeter?

You cannot measure peak voltage with a multimeter. However, some advanced multimeters can have a peak detection mode. You can also measure the peak voltage by multiplying the RMS voltage by the square root of 2 (√2).

What is the peak voltage of 480v?

The peak voltage of a 480V waveform would be 480 x √2, which is roughly 678.24 volts.

How do you calculate peak voltage from 230v?

The peak voltage from the 230V waveform is 325.42 volts, which is acquired from the following formula:

Vpeak = VRMS x √2 = 230 x 1.414 = 325.42 volts

Understanding Calculation Behind Peak Voltage

Peak voltage calculations are crucial during the design phase of electrical circuits and systems. Whether you are an electrical engineer or a technician, learning how to calculate peak voltage helps you ensure the proper functioning and safety of electrical systems and their respective components. When you are looking for battery power sources for your home or outdoor living, then do consider Jackery Portable Power Stations. These portable units are easy to carry and ensure that they provide the optimal power charge to protect your sensitive devices from getting overcharged.

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