Ultimate Guide to LiFePO4 Voltage Chart (3.2V, 12V, 24V, & 48V)

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Ultimate Guide to LiFePO4 Voltage Chart (3.2V, 12V, 24V, & 48V)
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The LiFePO4 voltage chart is an important tool that helps you understand the charge levels, performance, and health of lithium-ion phosphate batteries. The chart illustrates the voltage range, including fully charged and discharged states, to help you identify the current SoC (State of Charge) of their batteries. With the LiFePO4 battery voltage chart, you can gauge performance, ensure optimal usage, and extend the battery lifespan.

lifepo4 voltage chart by jackery

Jackery Portable Power Stations feature LiFePO4 batteries with a 10-year lifespan and can charge most home or outdoor appliances for long hours. These batteries have a high temperature-resistant capability that delivers safe and efficient operation. You can quickly recharge these batteries via Jackery SolarSaga Solar Panels to enjoy power during extended power outages or outdoor adventures.

What Is LiFePO4 Battery Voltage?

Let's first understand: What is a LiFePO4 battery? In simple words, a LiFePO4 battery is a popular type of Li-ion (lithium-ion) rechargeable battery that uses iron as a cathode. These batteries are the safest and most popular batteries integrated into solar power systems. They are becoming increasingly popular, all thanks to their long lifecycle, high energy density, and improved safety features.

The voltage of the LiFePO4 cells depends on the state of charge. Whenever the battery charges and discharges, the LiFePO4 battery voltage rises. If the LiFePO4 battery voltage is higher, it can store more energy and increase the overall capacity.

What Is LiFePO4 Voltage Chart?

The lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery voltage chart represents the state of charge (usually in percentage) of 1 cell based on different voltages, like 12V, 24V, and 48V. Here is a LiFePO4 Lithium battery state of charge chart based on voltage for 12V, 24V, and 48V LiFePO4 batteries.

Percentage (SOC)

1 Cell

12V

24V

48V

100% Charging

3.65

14.6

29.2

58.4

100% Rest

3.40

13.6

27.2

54.4

90%

3.35

13.4

26.8

53.6

80%

3.32

13.3

26.6

53.1

70%

3.30

13.2

26.4

52.8

60%

3.27

13.1

26.1

52.3

50%

3.26

13.0

26.1

52.2

40%

3.25

13.0

26.0

52.0

30%

3.22

12.9

25.8

51.5

20%

3.20

12.8

25.6

51.2

10%

3.00

12.0

24.0

48.0

0%

2.50

10.0

20.0

40.0

3.2V Battery Voltage Chart

Individual LiFePO4 cells typically have a 3.2V nominal voltage. The cells are fully charged at 3.65V, and at 2.5V, they become fully discharged. Here's a 3.2V battery voltage chart:

3.2v LiFePO4 cell voltage chart

12V Battery Voltage Chart

12V 100Ah LiFePO4 batteries are a great upgrade for 12V lead acid batteries. They are one of the safest batteries for off-grid solar systems. When they are fully charged, the battery voltage becomes 14.6V. It drops to 10 volts when fully discharged. The below 12V LiFePO4 battery voltage chart reveals how the voltage drops with respect to battery capacity.

12v LiFePO4 battery voltage chart

24V Battery Voltage Chart

You can either purchase a 24V LiFePO4 battery or buy two identical 12V LiFePO4 batteries and connect them in series. These batteries are fully charged at 29.2V and drop to 20 volts when discharging.

24v LiFePO4 battery voltage chart

48V Battery Voltage Chart

48V batteries are generally used in larger solar power systems. The high-voltage solar system keeps the amperage low, helping you save high on equipment and wiring costs.

48v LiFePO4 battery voltage chart

LiFePO4 Battery Charging & Discharging

A battery's SoC (state of charge) indicates the remaining capacity that can be discharged over the battery pack's total capacity. Suppose you have a battery pack rated 100Ah and still have 30Ah left to discharge. In this case, the SoC will be 30%.

In other words, if you charge the battery to 100Ah and then discharge around 70Ah, it will still have 30Ah left. The SoC of a battery depends on its voltage and vice versa. When the battery is charged, the voltage increases.

The following SoC and LiFePO4 charge voltage chart reveals the relationship between the two parameters.

SOC (100%)

Voltage (V)

100

3.60-3.65

90

3.50-3.55

80

3.45-3.50

70

3.40-3.45

60

3.35-3.40

50

3.30-3.35

40

3.25-3.30

30

3.20-3.25

20

3.10-3.20

10

2.90-3.00

0

2.00-2.50

State of the Charge Curve

There are different ways to determine the battery's SoC, such as voltage, counting coulombs, and specific gravity.

  • Voltage:The higher the battery voltage, the fuller the battery is. In order to get accurate results, you must keep the battery at rest for at least four hours before measuring. Some manufacturers even recommend around 24 hours of rest.
  • Counting Coulombs:It measures the current flowing in and out of the battery and uses ampere-second (As) to measure the battery's charging and discharging rate.
  • Specific Gravity:You need a hydrometer to measure the SoC. It works by monitoring the liquid density based on buoyancy.

If you want to extend the battery's lifespan, you need to charge the LiFePO4 battery properly. Each battery type has a level of voltage that must be reached to get maximum performance while improving the battery's health. You may use the SoC chart as a guide while recharging the batteries. For example, 90% charge for a 24V battery is 26.8V.

The state of the charge curve indicates how the 1-cell battery voltage varies depending on charging time.

state of charge curve @ 1c 25°c

LiFePO4 Battery Charging Parameters

Some basic LiFePO4 battery charging parameters include different types of voltages, such as charging, float, maximum/minimum, and nominal. The below table reveals the battery charging parameters at 3.2V, 12V, 24V, and 48V.

Characteristics

3.2V

12V

24V

48V

Charging Voltage

3.5~3.65V

14.2~14.6V

28.4V~29.2V

56.8V~58.4V

Float Voltage

3.2V

13.6V

27.2V

54.4V

Maximum Voltage

3.65V

14.6V

29.2V

58.4V

Minimum Voltage

2.5V

10V

20V

40V

Nominal Voltage

3.2V

12V/12.8V

24V/25.6V

48V/51.2V

Float, Bulk, and Equalize Voltage of LiFePO4

One important thing to note is that lithium only supports bulk charging. Once the LiFePO4 battery is fully charged, it shuts off.

The three most common types of voltages include bulk, float, and equalize.

Bulk Voltage: This is the voltage at which the battery is charged faster. It usually occurs during the initial stage of charging, when the battery is completely discharged. The bulk voltage of a 12-volt LiFePO4 battery is 14.6V.

Float Voltage: Generally lower than the bulk voltage, it is the maintained voltage once the battery is fully charged. The float voltage of a 12-volt LiFePO4 battery is 13.5V.

Equalize Voltage: Equalization is an important process that must be performed regularly to maintain the battery capacity. The 12-volt LiFePO4 battery's equalized voltage is 14.6V.

Types

3.2V

12V

24V

48V

Bulk

3.65V

14.6V

29.2V

58.4V

Float

3.375V

13.5V

27.0V

54.0V

Equalize

3.65V

14.6V

29.2V

58.4V

Battery Discharge Curve

Discharge means the power is withdrawn from the battery to charge appliances. The battery discharge chart typically represents the relationship between voltage and discharge time.

Below is the 12V LiFePO4 discharge curve at different discharge rates.

12V LiFePO4 discharge current curve

One of the most important things you need to extend the battery's lifespan is DoD or Depth of Discharge. It is the discharged battery capacity in relation to its overall capacity. In other words, the more the LiFePO4 battery is charged and recharged, the shorter its lifespan will be.

The discharge is typically shown using charts and curves. You will need to look at the depth of discharge to determine the fraction of power withdrawn from a battery. A battery discharge rate is the process when the battery completely loses its charge.

The following table reveals the batteries with different Ah ratings and their maximum discharge current at different time intervals.

Battery or Battery Pack Ah Rating

7 Minute Maximum Discharge Current

30 Minute Maximum Discharge Current

5Ah

15 Amps

10 Amps

7Ah

21 Amps

14 Amps

8Ah

24 Amps

16 Amps

9Ah

27 Amps

18 Amps

10Ah

31 Amps

21 Amps

12Ah

36 Amps

24 Amps

14Ah

42 Amps

31 Amps

15Ah

44 Amps

32 Amps

18Ah

57 Amps

40 Amps

22Ah

66 Amps

46 Amps

35Ah

105 Amps

84 Amps

What Are The Effects of LiFePO4 Battery Voltage on Performance?

LiFePO4 battery voltage affects the performance, power it can deliver, the overall lifespan, and the amount of energy it can store.

Capacity: The two important terms — battery capacity and voltage — are directly proportional to one another. When the voltage increases, the battery capacity also increases. This means a 24V LiFePO4 battery has a higher capacity than a 12V battery of the same size.

Charging: All the LiFePO4 batteries need a specific charging voltage and current for best performance. When the charging voltage is too low, the battery will not charge fully, eventually reducing capacity. If the voltage becomes too high, it often contributes to overcharging and can damage the battery.

Discharging: The discharge voltage of the LiFePO4 battery also affects the performance. When you discharge the battery below the recommended voltage level, it leads to irreversible battery damage and reduces its lifespan.

Efficiency: LiFePO4's battery is directly proportional to the voltage. A higher voltage battery is more efficient in supplying power to the devices. If you want a highly efficient LiFePO4 battery, consider choosing a higher voltage of LiFePO4.

Lifespan: A LiFePO4 battery with higher voltage may have a longer lifespan than a low-voltage battery. This means a higher voltage battery can handle more charge cycles.

How to Check LiFePO4 Battery Capacity?

Checking the LiFePO4 battery capacity is one of the best ways to keep it safe and enhance its lifespan. Below are the three simple methods to measure the capacity and ensure it is not fully discharged.

Method 1: Check via Multimeter

Checking the open circuit battery voltage via a multimeter method is moderately accurate. However, there is one downside. You'll have to disconnect all loads and chargers and keep the battery at rest.

First, you must remove the loads and chargers attached to the LiFePO4 battery. Wait 15-30 minutes before measuring the open circuit voltage using the multimeter. You can compare it with the SoC chart in your battery manual or the voltage curve chart.

Method 2: Use a Battery Monitor

This is one of the most accessible and reliable methods to measure battery capacity. All you need to do is connect a high-quality battery monitor to the battery and determine the charge level.

Method 3: Use a Solar Charge Controller

Using the solar charge controller to determine the battery capacity may seem convenient, but it is not a very accurate method. The voltage reading is mainly inaccurate as the measurement is done with loads and chargers attached.

Other Types of Batteries & Their Voltage Charts

Besides LiFePO4, there are many other batteries available in the market. In this section, we will reveal different types of batteries and their voltage charts.

Lithium Battery Voltage Chart

The lithium-ion batteries are popular choices for modern electronics, portable devices, and electric vehicles. They have better performance than their traditional counterparts and are best known for their high energy density. Additionally, they are highly efficient and have quick charging capabilities, making them ideal for many applications. Here's a lithium-ion battery voltage chart at 12V, 24V, and 48V.

Capacity (%)

1 Cell

12 Volt

24 Volt

48 Volt

100

3.40

13.6

27.2

54.4

90

3.35

13.4

26.8

53.6

80

3.32

13.3

26.6

53.1

70

3.30

13.2

26.4

52.8

60

3.27

13.1

26.1

52.3

50

3.26

13.0

26.0

52.2

40

3.25

13.0

26.0

52.0

30

3.22

12.9

25.8

52.5

20

3.20

12.8

25.6

51.2

10

3.00

12.0

24.0

48.0

0

2.50

10.0

20.0

40.0

Lead-Acid Battery Voltage Chart

Lead-acid is one of the oldest rechargeable battery chemistries and was a traditional choice in many applications. You can find these batteries in diesel-fueled or gasoline vehicles that require large energy bursts for starting the engine. Even though these batteries are cost effective, they have shorter lifespan and low energy density compared to new technologies. Here's a lead-acid battery voltage chart for a 6V sealed and flooded lead-acid battery.

Capacity

6V Sealed Lead Acid Battery

6V Flooded Lead Acid Battery

100%

6.44V

6.32V

90%

6.39V

6.26V

80%

6.33V

6.20V

70%

6.26V

6.15V

60%

6.20V

6.09V

50%

6.11V

6.03V

40%

6.05V

5.98V

30%

5.98V

5.94V

20%

5.90V

5.88V

10%

5.85V

5.82V

0%

5.81V

5.79V

Lead-Acid Deep Cycle Battery Voltage Chart

The deep cycle batteries can provide steady power for long periods. They are ideal for situations that need consistent energy output, such as recreational vehicles or renewable energy systems. The new valve regulated lead acid deep cycle batteries like AGM and Gel are known for greater DoD (depth of discharge). Here's a lead acid deep cycle battery voltage chart at 12V, 24V, and 48V.

Capacity

12V

24V

48V

100% (charging)

13.00V

26.00V

52.00V

99%

12.80V

25.75V

51.45V

90%

12.75V

25.55V

51.10V

80%

12.50V

25.00V

50.00V

70%

12.30V

24.60V

49.20V

60%

12.15V

24.30V

48.60V

50%

12.05V

24.10V

48.20V

40%

11.95V

23.90V

47.80V

30%

11.81V

23.62V

47.24V

20%

11.66V

23.32V

46.64V

10%

11.51V

23.02V

46.04V

0%

10.50V

21.00V

42.00V

Jackery LiFePO4 Portable Power Stations

Jackery is the pioneer in manufacturing superior-quality solar products, including solar panels, solar generators, and power stations. Whether you're living off-grid, camping, or want a backup solution for your home, Jackery Explorer Portable Power Stations has your back.

Jackery Solar Generators combine highly efficient Jackery SolarSaga Solar Panels and Jackery Explorer Portable Power Stations that work in tandem to produce electricity. When placed under direct sunlight, the Jackery SolarSaga Solar Panels absorb and eventually convert the solar energy into electricity. The Jackery Explorer Portable Power Stations converts the DC to AC current to charge electrical appliances.

how jackery explorer portable power station works

Jackery Explorer 2000 Plus Portable Power Station 

If you are looking for a large home battery backup that can charge 99% of household appliances, then the Jackery Explorer 2000 Plus Portable Power Station is an ideal choice. It has a LiFePO4 battery with a lifespan of 4000 cycles, after which it will still retain 70% of the total battery capacity. It has multiple output ports to charge multiple household or outdoor appliances simultaneously. If you want to expand the battery capacity from 2kWh to 24kWh, you can add up to 5 Jackery Battery Pack 2000 Plus with each Jackery Explorer 2000 Plus Portable Power Station. 

Appliance running time:

AC  (1000W) = 1.7H

Kettle (850W) = 2H

Coffee maker (550W) = 3.1H

Mobile Phone (30W) = 57.8H

jackery explorer 2000 plus portable power station

Jackery Explorer 1000 Plus Portable Power Station 

The Jackery Explorer 1000 Plus Portable Power Station is a compact size charging solution that can supply stable electricity to 99% appliances. It has a lifespan of 4000 cycles after which the battery capacity drops to 70% capacity. The LiFePO4 battery boosts a lifespan of 10-year and can provide a pure sine wave and constant voltage. The stable power output and innovative ChargeShield technology protect the equipment against damage and ensure safe operation.

Appliance running time:

AC (1000W) = 1H

Kettle (850W) = 1.2H

Mobile Phone (30W) = 35.8H

Coffee Maker (550W) = 1.9H

jackery explorer 1000 plus portable power station

Jackery Explorer 300 Plus Portable Power Station 

The Jackery Explorer 300 Plus Portable Power Station weighs only 8.27 lbs and is ideal for camping, road trips, etc. It features 52 protective mechanisms, 4 types of physical protection, and 12 BMS algorithms to improve overall safety. The durable LFP (or LiFePO4) battery, coupled with upgraded BMS technology, offers up to 10 years of lifespan. It can be recharged with book-sized Jackery SolarSaga 40W Solar Panels that can also slip into your backpack.

Appliance running time:

Drone (90W) = 5 times

Camera (8.4W) = 12 times

Mobile Phones = 13 times

CPAP machines (30W) = 8.1H

jackery explorer 300 plus portable power station

How to Increase The LiFePO4 Battery Lifespan?

LiFePO4 is a reliable and long-lasting battery that has recently gained popularity. With appropriate maintenance, these batteries can last up to ten years.

Here are a few factors that can affect the 12V LiFePO4 battery lifespan.

  • Temperature plays one of the vital roles in improving the lifespan of LiFePO4 batteries. For this reason, you must store and utilize the LiFePO4 battery in a moderate temperature range to improve longevity and optimal performance.
  • When you charge or discharge the battery too quickly, it can lead to heat buildup and even damage the battery's internal components. It's recommended to charge and discharge the battery at a recommended value.
  • Over-discharging any LiFePO4 battery can cause irreversible damage to the battery and can even reduce its lifespan. It is advised to keep the DoD of the LiFePO4 battery below 80% to maximize its lifespan.
relationship between temperature and battery cycle numbers

One of the simple methods to boost the lifespan or charging/discharging rates is by increasing the battery's Ah capacity. The nylon tape around the cells and keeping the battery at a cool temperature can also improve the lifespan.

Voltage

Capacity

Charge Cycles

Lifespan (Above 80% Original Capacity)

(V)

(Ah %)

(If charged and discharged to each of these voltages every day)

(Charged once a day)

14.4V

100%

3200 cycles

9 years

13.6V

100%

3200 cycles

9 years

13.4V

99%

3200 cycles

9 years

13.3V

90%

4500 cycles

12.5 years

13.2V

70%

8000 cycles

20 years

13.1V

40%

8000 cycles

20 years

13.0V

30%

8000 cycles

20 years

12.9V

20%

8000 cycles

20 years

12.8V

17%

6000 cycles

16.5 years

12.5V

14%

4500 cycles

12.5 years

12.0V

9%

4500 cycles

12.5 years

10.0V

0%

3200 cycles

9 years

LiFePO4 Voltage Chart FAQs

What is the LiFePO4 charging voltage?

The LiFePO4 charging voltage lies somewhere between 3.50 - 3.65V. It's worth noting that the charging voltage of LiFePO4 cannot exceed 3.65V because Li batteries are generally sensitive to over current and over voltage.

What is the nominal lithium battery voltage?

Lithium batteries have a nominal voltage of around 3.7V per cell. When fully charged to 100%, the 12V lithium LiFePO4 battery can hold around 13.3 - 13.4V.

What is the voltage range of the LiFePO4 cell?

The nominal LiFePO4 cell voltage is 3.2V. These cells are fully discharged at 2.5V and charged at 3.65V. It's important to note that these values might vary depending on the cell’s specifications.

What is the minimum voltage damage for LiFePO4?

The minimum voltage damage for 12V LiFePO4 batteries is around 10V. If the LiFePO4 battery is discharged below the minimum voltage, it will likely be permanently damaged. That's why it's vital to check the LiFePO4 battery voltage chart and ensure you safely charge your batteries.

What is the low voltage cutoff for LiFePO4?

The low voltage cutoff for LiFePO4 is the predetermined voltage threshold below which any battery should not discharge. The value for LiFePO4 battery is around 2.5V per cell.

What voltage should LiFePO4 bulk absorb?

The LiFePO4 bulk/absorb voltage lies between 14.2 and 14.6 volts. A voltage of 14.0 volts is also possible with the help of some absorb time. Slightly higher voltages of around 14.8-15.0 volts are also possible before disconnecting the battery.

How do I know if my LiFePO4 battery is bad?

No battery can last forever, no matter how good it is. A LiFePO4 battery may start degrading after a few years, and you may see some signs of degradation. Here are a few of them.

  • The 12V LiFePO4 batterytakes longer to charge than usual or cannot charge at all.
  • The electronic device powers off unexpectedly, even when there is plenty of battery left.
  • LiFePO4 battery may become overinflated after a few years, which is a sign of a damaged or bad battery.

Final Thoughts

The LiFePO4 voltage chart can help you understand the performance levels of the batteries. Once you read and understand the LiFePO4 voltage chart, it will help you know how useful these batteries are for power backup systems.

Jackery Portable Power Stations feature highly efficient LiFePO4 batteries and can charge most home or outdoor appliances. They have a long lifespan, large battery capacity, and ergonomic design, making them an ideal choice for emergency backup solutions or outdoor adventures.

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