Ultimate Guide on How to Calculate Peak-to-Peak Voltage

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Ultimate Guide on How to Calculate Peak-to-Peak Voltage


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If you want to know how to calculate peak-to-peak voltage, here is the formula you'll need to use:

VP-P = VP × 2


VP is the peak voltage

VP-P is the peak-to-peak voltage

Let's say you wish to find the peak-to-peak voltage when the peak voltage is 240V. Upon substituting the values in the above equation, we get:

VP-P = 240V × 2 = 480V

It's worth noting that the peak-to-peak voltage calculation is relevant for AC waveforms. Hence, it may not apply directly to complex or non-sinusoidal waveforms.

Jackery Portable Power Stations are battery-powered inverter generators that can supply reliable electricity to appliances, including refrigerators, water heaters, ACs, sump pumps, LED lights, and coolers. They have fully upgraded BMS technology that prevents equipment damage from short circuits and voltage fluctuations.

What Is Peak to Peak Voltage?

Voltage is the electric potential within an electric circuit and provides the potential for current flow. Peak-to-peak voltage is the distance from the trough or lowest negative amplitude to the highest positive amplitude (or crest) of the AC waveform.

Peak-to-peak voltage is equal to the full height of the waveform and can be found using the peak or RMS voltage. In other words, the peak-to-peak value of an AC (alternating current) is twice the peak value or 2.828 times the root-mean-square value. It is typically indicated by VP-P.

Here are some of the terms you must keep in mind when using the formula:

Voltage Peak: The maximum instantaneous value of any function measured from the zero volt level. If the average value of the function is zero volts, the peak amplitude and peak value are the same. It is denoted by VP.

Voltage Peak to Peak: It is the total voltage between positive and negative waveform peaks. In other words, it is the sum of the magnitude of both positive and negative peaks. It is denoted by VP-P.

Voltage RMS: It is the practical value of the root mean square of the waveform. In other words, it is the direct current equivalent voltage of alternating current power. It is denoted by VRMS.

Voltage Average: The waveform level defined by the condition that the curve enclosing the area above the level is precisely equal to the area below the level. It is typically indicated by Vavg.

Here's the chart revealing the relationship between the peak-to-peak voltage, peak voltage, and RMS voltage on an AC waveform.

relationship between peak to peak voltage peak voltage and rms voltage

How to Calculate Peak-to-Peak Voltage?

There are two methods to calculate peak-to-peak voltage: either from peak voltage or from RMS voltage. If you know either the peak voltage or RMS voltage, you can use the formulas to determine the peak-to-peak voltage. Here's how to calculate peak-to-peak voltage in two different ways:

Peak Voltage to Peak-to-Peak Voltage Formula

If you know the peak voltage of the AC waveform, you can use the following formula:

VP-P = VP × 2


VP is the peak voltage

VP-P is the peak-to-peak voltage

In other words, the peak-to-peak voltage is equal to twice the peak voltage.

For example, if the peak voltage is 120V, here's how do you calculate peak-to-peak voltage. 

VP-P = 120V × 2 = 240V

RMS Voltage to Peak-to-Peak Voltage Formula

Root Mean Square or RMS is the alternating voltage or square root of the mean square of instantaneous values of the voltage signal. In an AC waveform, it is the amount of AC power that produces the same heating effect as DC Power.

If you know the value of VRMS, you can easily calculate the peak-to-peak voltage using the below formula:

VP-P = 2 × √2 × VRMS


VRMS is the RMS voltage

VP-P is the peak-to-peak voltage

In other words, the peak-to-peak voltage equals twice the square root of two times the RMS voltage.

For instance, if the RMS voltage is 120V, the peak-to-peak voltage can be calculated as follows:

VP-P = 2 × √2 × 120V = 340V

how to calculate peak to peak voltage using peak and rms voltage

What Are The Differences Between Peak-to-Peak, Peak, and RMS Voltages?

The voltage typically goes up and down in a smooth sine wave in alternating current. For example, it goes up to meet the maximum positive voltage, back to zero, then to the maximum negative value, and finally back to zero to start all over again.

As you can see from the battery voltage graph, there is a voltage change over time. For this reason, there are different ways to express the voltage change over time, depending on what you are trying to emphasize. Let's explain how these terms differ and the related formulas:

Peak Voltage (VP): The peak voltage has the highest value compared to zero volts. The amplitude is similar to the peak voltage value as it is the highest value of the waveform. The peak and amplitude values are used in waveform analysis but not in the AC electrical work.

Peak-to-Peak Voltage (VP-P): The peak-to-peak voltage is the difference between the lowest and highest values in an AC waveform. Generally speaking, the peak-to-peak value will be twice the peak value. In mathematical terms, VP-P = VP × 2.

RMS Voltage: Root Mean Square (RMS) is the direct current equivalent to the voltage of AC power. It gives the effective voltage of AC power for watts and other calculations. It's worth noting that RMS is used while calculating Ohm's law. In mathematical terms, the peak-to-peak voltage is equal to twice the square root of two times VRMS.

If you want to understand the differences between peak, peak-to-peak, and RMS voltage, let's take an example:

120 VRMS equals 170 volts peak (VP), and 170 volts peak (VP) equals 340 volts peak to peak (VP-P), which is the difference between +170V and -170V.

Mathematically, the peak-to-peak voltage can be expressed using the following formula:

VP-P = 2 × VP = 2 × √2 × VRMS or VP = √2 × VRMS

If the VRMS is 120V, the peak voltage will be equal to √2 × 120V = 170V, and the peak-to-peak voltage will be equal to 2 × 170V = 340V.

What Is The Battery Voltage?

Simply put, battery voltage is the electric potential difference between both (positive and negative) battery terminals. The difference is generally created by the lack or excess of electrons flowing in the circuits. You can think of voltage like a spring in the battery. The more we push the spring down, the greater its potential.

Understanding the basic battery voltage helps you determine how much power it can supply. One important thing to remember is that different electrical systems have varying voltages. For example, it can range from 12V - 48V direct current systems to 110V, 220V, and higher in AC applications.

Battery voltage typically depends on the chemistry and cell count. For example, lithium-ion batteries have a voltage range of around 13.6V when charged compared to 12.7V of lead-acid batteries. You can check the battery voltage charts to understand the voltages of different batteries. Understanding the voltages of various types of batteries is essential if you want to choose the best battery for a specific device.

Let's explain the two types of batteries briefly:

Lithium Batteries

A lithium battery is a popular technology with high energy density and higher capacity. When charged, a 12V battery boasts a normal maximum voltage of 13.6V in the lithium-ion battery voltage chart. It can deliver constant voltage when there is battery discharge, ensuring safety and longevity.

The LiFePO4 batteries are the safest among all and come with superior BMS technology to provide optimum charging and discharging. You can check the LiFePO4 battery voltage chart to determine how to enhance the battery lifespan and safely charge the appliances.

Lithium batteries are safe and reliable, so many power stations or battery backups are manufactured using them. Compared to their counterparts, lithium batteries can safely charge electrical appliances and keep devices running for long hours.

Lead-Acid Batteries

Lead-acid batteries are mainly used as starter batteries in automotive and marine applications. When charged, they typically have a voltage of 12.7V. Compared to lithium batteries, they do not offer the same energy density.

Here's a table revealing the voltage, energy density, and unique characteristics of different types of batteries.








Manganese dioxide


0.5 MJ/Kg



Manganese dioxide


0.13 MJ/Kg

Lithium (BR)


Carbon monofluoride


1.3 MJ/Kg

Lithium (CR)


Manganese dioxide


1 MJ/Kg

Lithium-thionyl chloride


Sulfur-oxygen chlorine


1.04 MJ/Kg





1.69 MJ/Kg

Jackery Portable Power Stations feature reliable and robust NMC or LiFePO4 batteries. They have fully upgraded BMS (Battery Management System) technology to offer a stable power supply to the appliances. There are built-in temperature sensors to ensure the portable power station works in varying temperature conditions.

How to Measure the Battery Voltage

Regardless of what applications you use batteries for, it is essential to understand how to measure the voltage throughout their use. Here are two ways to measure and monitor battery voltage:

Use Multimeter

A straightforward way to measure battery voltage is to use a multimeter. To do this, set the battery to DC voltage and connect the red lead directly to the positive battery terminal, followed by attaching the black lead to the negative. You'll then see the battery voltage displayed on the multimeter. This also helps you determine the battery's state of charge and maintain its health.

Battery Monitor and Sensors

These devices measure and report on battery status, including temperature, voltage, and current. They provide real-time data for assessment and monitoring to anticipate battery health and performance. If the BMS uses battery monitors and sensors, this means the devices remain functional and powered.

Jackery Portable Power Stations Explained

Jackery is a global leader in manufacturing safe solar generators, portable power stations, and solar panels. The Jackery Portable Power Stations are compact and powerful battery-powered inverter generators with multiple input and output ports. The Jackery SolarSaga Solar Panels absorb and convert the sun's energy into DC electricity, which is converted into AC and stored in the Jackery Portable Power Stations to charge appliances.

Equipped with NMC or LiFePO4 batteries, these portable power stations feature BMS technology, 12 layers of protection, nine temperature sensors, and top shock-resistant level 9 to take safety to the next level. The Jackery Solar Generators have an ergonomic design and foldable handles and are designed with exploration in mind. You can carry these solar generators on your camping trips or use them as an emergency backup during extended power outages.

Jackery Explorer 3000 Pro Portable Power Station

The Jackery Explorer 3000 Pro Portable Power Station is equipped with an NMC battery and can charge up to 99% of household or outdoor appliances. It has a unique quiet canyon cooling system to ensure the emergency battery backup power source works by emitting less than 30dB of noise. The fully upgraded battery management system offers protection against overvoltage and short circuits. The built-in temperature sensors determine the peak temperature position depending on the simulation experiments.

jackery explorer 3000 pro portable power station peak to peak voltage

Appliances running time:

  • AC (1000W) = 2.5H
  • Refrigerator (800W) = 3.2H
  • Coffee Maker (850W) = 3.0H
  • TV (150W) = 17.1H
  • Microwave (800W) = 3.2H

Customer Review

"We got the 3000 Pro with four 200-watt panels. Since then, I've tried out my washing machine, gas dryer, and electric lawn mower and charged my phone. I've even charged the generator while powering devices with it. My idea of what solar and batteries can do has been greatly expanded. This unit delivers real power." — P.V.

Jackery Explorer 2000 Pro Portable Power Station

The powerful and compact Jackery Explorer 2000 Pro Portable Power Station is one of the best charging solutions for power outages and outdoor adventures. Its industry-leading BMS technology and built-in temperature sensors take safety to the next level. It enables efficient voltage control, temperature control, short circuit protection, and more advanced safety operations. With its multiple output ports, you can charge eight appliances at once. It houses two dual protection chips for safe and reliable charging.

jackery explorer 2000 pro portable power station peak to peak voltage

Appliances running time:

  • AC (1000W) = 1.8H
  • Refrigerator (800W) = 2.2H
  • Coffee Maker (850W) = 2.1H
  • TV (150W) = 12.2H
  • Microwave (800W) = 2.1H

Customer Review

"I purchased this to give my husband and me peace of mind during what has become more frequent power outages in our home. My husband uses an oxygen concentrator at night. The unit quickly charged up, and testing has shown it will power the concentrator for 7.1 hours, which will get him through the night in an emergency." — Judy Browne.

Jackery Explorer 2000 Plus Portable Power Station

If you're looking for a versatile and safe charging solution, you might consider the Jackery Explorer 2000 Plus Portable Power Station your best bet. Its outstanding LiFePO4 battery has a lifespan of 10 years. It is ideal for off-grid living and can also supply power during extended blackouts. The innovative ChargeShield technology provides 12 protective algorithms, 62 protective mechanisms, and four types of physical safety protection. The unique stepped variable speed charging algorithm improves safety and boosts the battery lifespan by 50%.

jackery explorer 2000 plus portable power station peak to peak voltage

  • Appliances running time:
  • AC (1000W) = 1.7H
  • Refrigerator (800W) = 2.1H
  • Coffee Maker (850W) = 2.0H
  • TV (150W) = 11.5H
  • Microwave (800W) = 2.1H

Customer Review

"Peace of mind knowing we have a backup in the event of a power failure. A very nice, powerful unit that charges quickly. Have run several appliances in the house. I have purchased a second Explorer 2000 Pro to alternate when one needs recharging with the solar panels. We are now prepared for an emergency. Highly recommended." — Richard W.

Is Battery Voltage Dangerous?

Battery voltage is not dangerous until it exceeds 50V. The human body can usually handle up to 50V of shock with unlimited current capacity. The theory is based on the power distribution of the human body, which indicates that the arms and legs are at least 500 ohms.

In this case, if the volts are 50V, no lethal current would be passed into the heart. On the other hand, if the voltage exceeds 50V, the human body acts as a conductor. Some dangers associated with high voltage include hearing loss, broken bones, cardiac arrest, eye injuries, and burns.

So, what is the normal voltage of the battery? The correct answer depends on the type of battery you have. For example, a household AAA battery will have a different voltage compared to a car battery. The reason behind the difference is the chemical reaction that takes place in the cell. A fully charged car battery will measure around 12.6V, whereas an AAA battery will have 1.5 volts.

How to Calculate Peak-to-Peak Voltage FAQs

What is the formula for peak voltage?

The formula for peak voltage is Peak Voltage = Peak-to-Peak Voltage ÷ 2.

Or, VPeak = VP-P ÷ 2

If the peak-to-peak voltage is 120V, the peak voltage will be 120V ÷ 2 = 60V.

If you want to calculate peak voltage using RMS voltage, you can use the below formula:

VPeak = 1.414 x VRMS

The peak voltage for 120V RMS will be 1.414 × 120V = 170V.

What is the peak voltage of 480V?

If you're calculating peak voltage for the three-phase system, the formula will be VPeak(L-L) = √2 × VL-L. When the utility voltage is 480 VAC, the peak voltage will be about 678.7V, and the peak-to-peak voltage is nearly twice that, at about 1357.4V.

What is the peak-to-peak voltage of 220V?

The peak-to-peak voltage of a 220VAC RMS sine wave at 50-60 Hz is 620V. The peak voltage of a 220V AC source is 311V, which is calculated by multiplying the RMS voltage (220V) by 1.414 (the square root of 2).

What is the maximum peak-to-peak voltage?

The maximum peak-to-peak voltage of an AM wave is equal to 16 millivolts (mV), and the minimum is 4 millivolts (mV).

How do you calculate 3-phase peak voltage?

You can quickly calculate the peak voltage using the line-to-line and line-to-neutral voltage for three-phase systems. For example, if the line-to-line voltage is 480V AC, the peak voltage will be:

VP = √2 × VL-L = 678.7V.

On the other hand, if neutral wiring is present in the three-phase system, you can use the following formula to calculate line-to-neutral and peak voltage.

VL-N = VL-L ÷ √3 = 480V AC ÷ √3 = 277V AC

The peak voltage will be:

VP = √2 × VL-N = 392V.

Final Thoughts

Peak-to-peak voltage helps you understand the maximum voltage variation of the AC supply. It plays a crucial role in both designing and testing electronic circuits. It also ensures all the components in the circuits are rated to handle the maximum voltages. Understanding how to calculate the peak-to-peak voltage can also help In waveform analysis and amplifier design.

If you are looking for a portable power station that can offer safe charging without worrying about voltage fluctuations, you may consider investing in the Jackery Portable Power Stations. They are built with upgraded BMS and state-of-the-art temperature sensors to supply charge without equipment damage. Additionally, they have a large battery capacity, helping you charge 99% of household or outdoor appliances.

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