Ultimate Guide to Lithium-Ion Battery Voltage Chart (12V, 24V, 48V)

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Ultimate Guide to Lithium-Ion Battery Voltage Chart (12V, 24V, 48V)
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The lithium-ion battery voltage chart is an important tool that helps you understand the potential difference between the two poles of the battery. The key parameters you need to keep in mind, include rated voltage, working voltage, open circuit voltage, and termination voltage. Different lithium battery materials typically have different battery voltages caused by the differences in electron transfer and chemical reaction processes. Most popular voltage sizes of lithium batteries include 12V, 24V, and 48V.

Jackery Portable Power Stations feature NMC or stable LiFePO4 batteries that can charge most of your electronic devices for long hours. The fully upgraded BMS (Battery Management System) technology ensures safe electricity supply to the appliances without worrying about voltage fluctuations. They also have high temperature resistant capabilities for efficient operation at different temperatures.

What Is Lithium-Ion Battery?

A lithium-ion battery relies on lithium-ion cells that store power by creating an electrical potential difference between positive and negative battery poles. There's an insulating layer called a separator that divides the two battery sides. It allows only the lithium-ion to pass through while blocking the electrons. There are six types of lithium-ion batteries, explained below.

  • Lithium Iron Phosphate:LiFePO4 or LFP batteries use lithium ferrous phosphate as the anode, making it highly stable among all the types. They have a longer life cycle and work across a wide temperature range.
  • Lithium Cobalt Oxide: LCO batteries have low specific power but high specific energy. These batteries do not perform well in high-load applications and can deliver power over a long period.
  • Lithium Manganese Oxide:These LMO batteries utilize lithium manganese oxide as a cathode and create a three-dimensional structure that increases current handling, lowers internal resistance, and improves ion flow.
  • Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide:These lithium-ion batteries combine three main elements: nickel, cobalt, and manganese. While nickel has a high specific energy, it is not stable. On the other hand, manganese is stable, but it has a low specific energy. Combining them offers a stable chemistry with a high specific energy.
  • Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide: The lithium NCA batteries have a long lifecycle and high specific energy with decent power. They supply a relatively high amount of current for extended periods.
  • Lithium Titanate:LTO batteries use graphite in the anode with lithium titanate and use NMC or LMO as the cathode chemistry.

Here is a lithium-ion battery diagram:

lithium ion battery diagram

Jackery Explorer Portable Power Stations have either NMC or LiFePO4 batteries to charge most electrical appliances for extended periods. They are highly stable, have a long life cycle, and operate well in cold temperatures.

What Is Lithium-Ion Battery Voltage Chart?

Thanks to their safe nature, lithium-ion batteries are common in solar generators. Different voltage sizes of lithium-ion batteries are available, such as 12V, 24V, and 48V.

Lithium Battery Voltage Chart

The lithium-ion battery voltage chart lets you determine the discharge chart for each battery and charge them safely. Here is 12V, 24V, and 48V battery voltage chart:

Charge Capacity (%)

1 Cell

12 Volt

24 Volt

48 Volt

100

3.40

13.6

27.2

54.4

90

3.35

13.4

26.8

53.6

80

3.32

13.3

26.6

53.1

70

3.30

13.2

26.4

52.8

60

3.27

13.1

26.1

52.6

50

3.26

13.0

26.0

52.5

40

3.25

13.0

26.0

52.4

30

3.22

12.9

25.8

52.0

20

3.20

12.8

25.6

51.6

10

3.00

12.0

24.0

48.0

0

2.50

10.0

20.0

40.0

12V Lithium Battery Voltage Chart

Generally, battery voltage charts represent the relationship between two crucial factors — a battery's SoC (state of charge) and the voltage at which the battery runs. The below table illustrates the 12V lithium-ion battery voltage chart (also known as 12 volt battery voltage chart).

Percentage of Charge

12V Battery Voltage

Specific Gravity using Hydrometer

100%

12.70

1.265

95%

12.64

1.257

90%

12.58

1.249

85%

12.52

1.241

80%

12.46

1.233

75%

12.40

1.225

70%

12.36

1.218

65%

12.28

1.204

55%

12.24

1.197

50%

12.20

1.190

45%

12.16

1.183

40%

12.12

1.176

35%

12.08

1.169

30%

12.04

1.162

25%

12.00

1.155

20%

11.98

1.148

15%

11.96

1.141

10%

11.94

1.134

5%

11.92

1.127

0% (Discharged)

11.90

1.120

Lithium Battery SoC Chart

When a lithium-ion battery is plugged into the charger, charging continues until 100% of the state of charge is reached. The charge is then terminated, and the Li-ion battery is allowed to slowly discharge. In Li-ion cells, the relationship between SoC and voltage is relatively flat throughout the cell's discharge range. Here's the lithium battery state of charge chart:

typical li ion discharge voltage curve

Lithium-Ion Battery Voltage Curve

A typical lithium-ion battery voltage curve is the relationship between voltage and state of charge. When the battery discharges and provides an electric current, the anode releases Li ions to the cathode to generate a flow of electrons from one side to the other. The lithium-ion battery charge and discharge curve varies depending on its type.

lithium ion battery charge and discharge curve

Other Types of Batteries Chart

Aside from lithium-ion, there are many other types of batteries available in the market. The most popular among them are LiFePO4, AGM, lead acid, and deep cycle batteries. Similar to lithium-ion, these battery voltages define how well these batteries perform. The higher the voltage of a battery, the more power it can deliver to the electrical device.

Lead-Acid Battery Voltage Chart

Lead-acid is the oldest rechargeable battery chemistry and is particularly common in diesel or gasoline-fueled vehicles. They deliver the large energy bursts needed for starting engines. Even though they are cost-effective, lead-acid batteries have a lower energy density and shorter lifespan. Additionally, you'll need to maintain them on a regular basis for longevity.

Deep Cycle Battery Voltage Chart

The deep cycle batteries come in a variety of voltages, with 12V being the most popular one. They are designed to provide steady power over extended periods. The newer valve-regulated lead acid deep cycle batteries, such as AGM and GEL, are known for greater depth of discharge.

LiFePO4 Battery Voltage Chart

The LiFePO4 are known for longer lifespan and are better than other standard batteries. The LiFePO4 battery voltage chart represents the relationship between the state of charge (SoC) based on different voltages, such as 12V, 24V, and 48V.

AGM Battery Voltage Chart

An AGM battery voltage chart defines the relationship between the SoC (state of chart), current, and voltage. The charging and discharging currents affect the battery voltage of AGM batteries and are depicted by the AGM battery voltage chart.

Lithium-Ion Battery Features

Lithium-ion batteries are known for having a high energy density due to the highly reactive lithium inside them. Some features of lithium-ion batteries include:

High-Energy Density: Lithium-ion batteries have higher energy density than other battery types, so they can store more energy. Hence, lithium-ion batteries are ideal for laptops, smartphones, and power stations.

Long Cycle Life: Lithium-ion batteries can be recharged and discharged thousands of times (on average) before they lose capacity.

Fast Charging: Unlike other battery types, lithium-ion batteries are charged relatively quickly.

Low Self-Discharge Rate: Lithium-ion batteries typically have a lower self-discharge rate. This means they will lose power slowly compared to other devices.

Lithium-ion cells are widely used in PCs and cellular phones because of their high energy density and high voltage. While a lithium-ion cell is a single battery unit, a battery pack combines multiple cells in series or parallel. The typical lifespan of lithium-ion batteries is around 300-1000 charge cycles.

Voltage vs. Charging Relations

The relation between voltage and the battery's charge is often overlooked, but it's important.

This voltage and charging relationship determines the electricity stored in the power stations and the rate at which the electrical energy is released.

The lithium-ion battery's voltage is directly related to stored charge. That means a battery with greater voltage can hold more energy and vice versa.

State of charge (SoC) is the charge level of an electric battery relative to its capacity. It is generally expressed in percentages. The SoC of lithium-ion batteries lies between 0 to 1.

Power density and energy density are the two most common concepts associated with lithium-ion batteries. Power density is the amount of power generated by the battery backup with respect to its mass and is represented in watts per kilogram (W/kg).

On the contrary, energy density is the amount of energy the battery backup can store with respect to mass. It is typically represented in Wh/kg (watt-hours per kilogram). Think of it as a pool where the pool size is the energy density and power density, which can be compared to draining the pool as quickly as possible.

Jackery Portable Power Stations Explained

Jackery manufactures high-quality power stations and solar generators to help people switch to clean and green energy. Jackery Explorer Power Stations are portable batteries made with lithium-ion or LiFePO4. The Jackery Explorer Portable Power Stations feature a large-capacity NMC or LiFePO4 battery to charge many appliances like refrigerators, coffee machines, and more.

These battery backup solutions can be recharged via an AC outlet, car charger, and even Jackery SolarSaga Solar Panels. When placed under direct sunlight, the Jackery SolarSaga Solar Panels absorb and eventually convert solar energy into DC electricity. The pure sine wave inverter in the Jackery Explorer Portable Power Station then converts the DC to AC electricity to power all kinds of appliances.

Jackery Explorer 3000 Pro Portable Power Station 

The Jackery Explorer 3000 Pro Portable Power Station has an NMC battery of 3024Wh operated at 43.2V DC. The 6*Jackery SolarSaga 200W Solar Panels can recharge the power station in only 3.5 hours. It features several output ports, so you can charge many appliances simultaneously. The battery backup helps you power 99% of home or outdoor appliances, making it an excellent choice for home power outages, RV owners, and even off-grid homes.

jackery explorer 3000 pro portable power station

Customer Review

"I needed a reliable backup power solution that I could get in place quickly if a power outage occurred. The Jackery Explorer 3000 Pro Portable Power Station is perfect. I've already needed it several times. My entire home office (laptop, two external monitors, two printers, plus additional accessories) is connected to a surge suppressor, which I'm able to easily switch from the wall connection to my Jackery Explorer 3000 Pro Portable Power Station." — TMann Stuff.

Jackery Explorer 2000 Plus Portable Power Station

The Jackery Explorer 2000 Plus Portable Power Station has a large LiFePO4 battery capacity of 2042.8Wh. You can expand the battery all the way to 24kWh with the help of additional Jackery Battery Pack 2000 Plus. The high power output makes the power station ideal for charging refrigerators, heaters, and even medical equipment like CPAP machines. It operates at a high 44.8V DC voltage and an amp rating of 45.6 Ah.

jackery explorer 2000 plus portable power station

Customer Review

"I'm so grateful for the handles and the wheels to cart my generator. It's currently charging my trailer batteries, which will be finished in about 2 hours and have plenty of power to use elsewhere. It's quiet - I can't even hear it. If you want reliability, eco-friendly, and the highest quality for your money, get a Jackery!" — Gregory Arnold.

Jackery Explorer 1000 Plus Portable Power Station

The Jackery Explorer 1000 Plus Portable Power Station is like having more power in a smaller size. It has a LiFePO4 battery of 1264Wh and a massive output of 2000W to charge 99% of essential home or outdoor appliances. You can connect three Jackery Battery Pack 1000 Plus to expand the capacity from 1.25kWh to 5kWh, delivering 1-3 days of home backup power. It works well at 41.6V DC and 30.4Ah to charge low to high-power-consuming appliances.

jackery explorer 1000 plus portable power station

Customer Review

"If you enjoy the outdoors but can't live without your gadgets, then you need something like this. Took this unit out for the weekend, and it performed as expected. Charged my Segway scooter, MacBook, and a couple of small gadgets. The Jackery app enables you to control several functions of this power station. The ability to add up to 3 extra battery packs is a plus, totaling just over 5 kWh!" — Chris.

 

Capacity

Recharging Methods

Output Ports

Working Hours

Explorer 3000 Pro

3024Wh

Solar Recharging: 3.5 H (6*Jackery SolarSaga 200W Solar Panels)

Wall Recharging: 2.4 H

Car Recharging: 35 H

AC Output (x1): 120V~ 60Hz 25A Max

AC Output (x3): 120V~ 60Hz 20A Maximum

USB-C Output (x2): 100W Maximum, 5V⎓3A, 9V⎓3A, 12V⎓3A, 15V⎓3A, 20V⎓5A

Space Heater (350W): 7.3H

Microwave (700W): 3.6H

Kettle (850W): 3H

Coffee Maker (1120W): 2.2H

Portable Air Conditioner (1150W): 2.2H

Electric Pressure Cooker (1080W): 2.3H

Explorer  2000 Plus

2-24 kWh

Solar Recharging: 2 H (6*Jackery SolarSaga 200W Solar Panels)

Wall Recharging: 2 H

Car Recharging: 25 H

AC Output (×4) 120V~ 60Hz, 20A Maximum

AC Output (×1) 120V~ 60Hz, 25A Maximum

USB-A Output (x2): Quick Charge 3.0, 18W Maximum

USB-C Output (x2): 100W Maximum, (5V, 9V, 12V, 15V, 20V up to 5A)

Space Heater (350W): 4.9H

Microwave (700W): 2.4H

Kettle (850W): 2H

Coffee Maker (1120W): 1.5H

Portable Air Conditioner (1150W): 1.5H

Electric Pressure Cooker (1080W): 1.6H

Explorer 1000 Plus

1.25 - 5 kWh

Solar Recharging: 2 H (4*Jackery SolarSaga 200W Solar Panels)

Wall Recharging: 1.7 H

Car Recharging: 7 H

AC Output (x3): 120V~60Hz, 2000W (4000W Peak)

USB-A Output (x2): 18W Max, 5-5V⎓3A

USB-C Output (x2): 100W Maximum, (5V, 9V, 12V, 15V, 20V up to 5A)

Space Heater (350W): 3H

Microwave (700W): 1.5H

Kettle (850W): 1.2H

Coffee Maker (1120W): 57 min

Portable Air Conditioner (1150W): 56 min

Electric Pressure Cooker (1080W): 1H

Lithium-Ion Battery Voltage Chart FAQs

How to tell if a lithium-ion battery is bad?

Just like other batteries, lithium-ion batteries start deteriorating after a few years. Some signs that your lithium battery might be falling include:

Shorter battery life

Longer charging times

Overheating during charging

Discoloration or corrosion

Any form of leak or smell from the battery

Unexpected power offs

Sluggish device response

Inability to charge

How to tell if a battery is lithium?

If the battery has “Li” or “Lithium” printed on it and is rechargeable by nature, you can safely assume it is a lithium battery. Similarly, if the battery has the first letters (CR), this again indicates a lithium battery.

What voltage is 50% for a lithium battery?

Like other types of batteries, lithium-ion batteries generally deliver a slightly higher voltage at full charging and a lower voltage when the battery is empty. A fully-charged lithium-ion battery provides nearly 13.6V but offers 13.13V at 50% voltage.

Capacity (%)

Lead Battery

Lithium Battery

Lithium AV-Battery

100%

12.70V

13.60V

12.60V

90%

12.50V

13.32

12.10V

80%

12.42V

13.28V

11.60V

70%

12.32V

13.20V

11.35V

60%

12.20V

13.16V

11.10V

50%

12.06V

13.13V

10.80V

40%

11.90V

13.10V

10.70V

30%

11.75V

13.00V

10.60V

20%

11.58V

12.90V

10.45V

10%

11.31V

12.00V

10.25V

0%

10.50V

10.00V

9.00V

What voltage should a lithium battery read?

The nominal voltage of lithium-ion is around 3.60V/cell. A few cell manufacturers mark their lithium battery as 3.70V/cell or higher. Some lithium-ion batteries with LCO architecture have an increased nominal cell voltage and even permit higher charge voltages. The following table reveals the nominal cell voltage, typical end of discharge, maximum charge voltage, etc., of lithium-ion batteries.

Nominal cell voltage

Typical end-of-discharge

Max charge voltage

Notes

3.6V

2.8–3.0V

4.2V

Classic nominal voltage of cobalt-based lithium-ion battery.

3.7V

2.8–3.0V

4.2V

Marketing advantage. Achieved by low internal resistance.

3.8V

2.8–3.0V

4.35V

Surface coating and electrolyte additives. The charger should have the correct full-charge voltage for additional capacity.

3.85V

2.8–3.0V

4.4V

Surface coating and electrolyte additives. The charger should have the correct full-charge voltage for additional capacity.

What are standard lithium-ion battery voltages?

A lithium-ion battery's nominal or standard voltage is nearly 3.60V per cell. Some battery manufacturers mark lithium-ion batteries as 3.70V per cell or higher.

What voltage is overcharged on a lithium battery?

Overcharging means charging the lithium-ion battery beyond its fully charged voltage. When the charge exceeds 3.65V, it is known to be overcharged.

Final Thoughts

Voltage is one of the most important considerations one must keep in mind when buying a lithium-ion battery. It is also recommended that you check out the lithium-ion battery voltage chart to understand the voltage and charge of these batteries. The recommended voltage range for short-term storage of lithium-ion batteries is 3.0 to 4.2 volts per cell in series.

For long-term storage, lithium-ion batteries should be stored at around 75% capacity (3.85 to 4.0 volts) and at a low temperature to reduce permanent capacity loss. If you're looking for reliable and innovative power solutions for household or outdoor appliances, you can consider choosing the Jackery Portable Power Stations. They feature stable NMC or LiFePO4 batteries, making them ideal for off-grid living, emergency home backup, and outdoor adventures.  

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